Major Theologians
  1. Augustine (354-430)

Augustine wrote one of the world’s great classics, The City of God, in which he defended Christianity against the accusation that its rise had contributed to the collapse of the Roman Empire.

An English translation of the text of Augustine’s The City of God can be read at:

J.N. Figgis’s analysis of The Political Aspects of St. Augustine’sCity of God’ is available to be read at:

  1. Other Church Fathers

English translations of major Ante-Nicene and Post-Nicene Church Fathers can be found at: and also at

  1. Aquinas (1225-74)

Thomas Aquinas wrote the Summa Contra Gentiles and the Summa Theologiae to prove the rationality of Christianity in the face of challenges from Islam, Judaism and Aristotelian philosophy.

Latin, English and Czech versions of the Summa Theologiae can be viewed in parallel at:

The English text of the Summa Contra Gentiles can be found at:

The complete Latin text of Aquinas’s writings can be found at:

  1. Luther (1483-1546)

Martin Luther founded the Protestant Reformation.  He taught that salvation is not from good works, but a free gift of God, received only by grace through faith in Jesus as redeemer from sin.  Luther’s reforms resulted in the abolition of church courts in many places in Germany.

English translations of some of Luther’s writings can be found at: and also at:

  1. Calvin (1509-64)

John Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559) set the theological framework for Calvinism.  Book IV Chapter 20 of the Institutes is a classic text on the role and limits of civil government.

  1. Dooyeweerd (1894-1977)

Herman Dooyeweerd was a Dutch Neo-Calvinist philosopher who developed a self-consciously Christian philosophy covering the whole of life.

A relatively simple introduction to Dooyeweerd’s thinking and lots of other resources about Reformational Philosophy can be found at:

The text of some of his works is available from:

Materials to help guide you through the complexities of Dooyeweerd’s thought can be found at:

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